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가입일: 2015-01-30, (금) 10:13 pm
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Chapter 4 The Third Noble Truth "Niroda": ' The Cessation of Dukkha'

The Third Noble Truth is that there is emancipation, liberation, freedom from
the continuity of dukkha. This is called the Noble Truth of Cessation of dukkha,
which is Nibbana, more popularly known in its Sanskrit form of Nirvana. To
eliminate dukkha completely one has to eliminate the main root of dukkha, which
is 'thirst', as we saw earlier. Therefore Nirvana is known also by the term
Tanhakkhaya 'Extinction of Thirst'.
Now you will ask : But what is Nirvana? Volumes have been written in reply
to this quite natural and simple question ; they have, more and more, only confused
the issue rather than clarified it. The only reasonable reply to give to the question is
that it can never be answered completely and satisfactorily in words, because
human language is too poor to express the real nature of the Absolute Truth or
Ultimate Reality which is Nirvana. Language is created and used by masses of
human beings to express things and ideas experienced by their sense organs and
their mind. A supramundane experience like that of the Absolute Truth is not of
such a category.
Therefore there cannot be words to express that experience, just as the fish
had no words in his vocabulary to express the nature of solid land. The tortoise told
to his friend (the fish) that he (tortoise) just returned to the lake after a walk on the
land. 'Of course' the fish said, 'You mean swimming.' The tortoise try to explain the
one couldn't swim on the land, that it was solid, and that one walked on it. But the
fish insisted that there could be nothing like it, that it must be liquid like his lake,
with waves, and that one must be able to dive and swim there.
Words are symbols representing things and ideas known to us ; and these
symbols do not and can not convey the true nature of even ordinary things.
Language is considered deceptive and misleading in the matter of understanding of
the Truth. So the Lankavatara-sutra says that ignorant people get stuck in words
like an elephant in the mud.
Nevertheless we cannot do without language. But if Nirvana is to be
expressed and explained in positive terms, we are likely immediately to grasp an
idea associated with those terms, which may be quite the contrary. Therefore it is
generally expressed in negative terms-a less dangerous mode perhaps. So it is often
referred to by such negative terms as Tanhakkhaya 'Extinction of Thirst',
Asamkhata 'Uncompound', 'Unconditioned',Viraga 'Absence of desire', Nirodha
'Cessation', Nibbana ' Blowing out of'' or 'Extinction'.
Let us consider a few definitions and descriptions of Nirvana as found in the
original Pali texts:
'It is the complete cessation of that very 'thirst', giving it up, renouncing it,
emancipation from it, detachment from it.' 'Calming of all conditioned things, giving
up of all defilements, extinction of 'thirst', detachment, cessation, Nibbana.' 'O
bhikkhus, what is the Absolute (Asamkhata, Unconditioned)? It is, O bhikkhus, the
extinction of desire, the extinction of hatred, the extinction of illusion. This, O
bhikkhus, is called the Absolute. 'O Radha, the extinction of 'thirst' is Nibbana.' 'O
bhikkhus, whatever there may be things conditioned or unconditioned, among them
detachment is the highest. This is to say, freedom from conceit, destruction of thirst,
the uprooting of attachment, the cutting off of continuity, the extinction of 'thirst',
detachment, cessation, Nibbana.
The reply of Sariputta, the chief disciple of the Buddha, to a direct question
'What is Nibbana?' posed by a Parivrajaka, is identical with the definition of
Asamkhata given by the Buddha(above): 'The extinction of desire, the extinction of
hatred, the extinction of illusion.' 'The abandoning and destruction of desire and
craving for these Five Aggregates of Attachment: that is the cessation of dukkha.'
'The cessation of Continuity and becoming is Nibbana.'
And further, referring to Nirvana the Buddha says: 'O bhikkhus, there is
unborn, ungrown, and unconditioned. Were there not the unborn, ungrown, and
uncoditioned, there would be no escape for the born, grown, and conditioned. Since
there is the unborn, ungrown, and unconditioned, so there is escape for the born,
grown, and conditioned.' 'Here the four elements of solidity, fluidity, heat and
motion have no place ; the notions of length and breadth, the subtle and the gross,
good and evil, name and form are altogether destroyed; neither this world nor the
other, nor coming, going or standing, neither death nor birth, nor sense-objects are to
be found.'
Because Nirvana is thus expressed in negative terms, there are many who
have got a wrong notion that it is negative, and expresses self-annihilation. Nirvana
is definitely no annihilation of self, because there is no self to annihilate. If at all, it is
the annihilation of the illusion, of the false idea of self. It is incorrect to say that
Nirvana is negative or positive. The idea of 'negative' and 'positive' are relative, and
are within the realm of duality. These terms cannot be applied to Nirvana, Absolute
Truth, which is beyond duality and relativity.
A negative word need not necessarily indicate a negative state. The Pali or
Sanskrit word for health is arogya, a negative term, which literally means 'absence
of illness'. But arogya (health) does not represent a negative state.
The word 'Immortal' (or its Sanskrit equivalent Amrta or Pali Amata), which
also is a synonym for Nirvana, is negative, but it does not denote a negative state.
The negation of negative values is not negative.
One of the well-known synonyms for Nirvana is 'Freedom' (Pali Mutti, Skt.
Mukti). Nobody would say that freedom is negative. But even freedom has a
negative side: freedom is always a liberation from something which is obstructive,
which is evil, which is negative. But freedom is not negative. So Nirvana, Mutti or
Vimutti, the Absolute Freedom, is freedom from all evil, freedom from craving,
hatred and ignorance, freedom from all terms of duality, relativity, time and space.
We may get some idea of Nirvana as Absolute Truth from the Dhatuvibhangasutta
(No.140) of the Majjhima-nikaya.
This extremely important discourse was delivered by the Buddha to
Pukkusati (already mentioned), whom the Master found to be intelligent and
earnest, of the relevant portions of the night in a potter's shed.
The essence of the relevant portions of the sutta is as follows: A man is
composed of six elements: solidity, fluidity, heat, motion, space and consciousness.
He analyses them and finds that none of them is 'mine', or 'me'; or 'my self'. He
understand how consciousness appears and disappears, how pleasant, unpleasant
and neutral sensations appears and disappears. Through this knowledge his mind
becomes detached.
Then he finds within him a pure equanimity (upekha), which he can direct
towards the attainment of any high spiritual state, and he knows that thus this pure
equanimity will last for a long period.
But then he thinks: 'If I focus this purified and cleansed equanimity on the
Sphere of Infinite Space and develop a mind conforming thereto, that is a mental
creation (samkhatan). If I focus this purified and cleansed equanimity on the Sphere
of Infinite Consciousness…on the Sphere of Nothingness… or on the Sphere of
Neitherperception nor Non-perception and develop a mind conforming thereto,
that is a mental creation.'
Then he neither mentally creates nor wills continuity and becoming (bhava)
or annihilation (vibhava). As he does not construct or does not cling to anything in
the world ; as he does not cling, he is not anxious ; as he is not anxious, he is
completely calmed within (fully blown out within paccattam yeva parinibbayati).
And he knows: 'Finished is birth, lived is pure life, what should be done is
done, nothing more is left to be done.' Now, when he experiences a pleasant,
unpleasant or neutral sensation, he knows that it is impermanent, that it does not
bind him, that it is not experienced with passion. Whatever may be the sensation, he
experiences it without being bound to it (visamyutto). He knows that all those
sensations will be pacified with the dissolution of the body, just as the flame of a
lamp goes out when oil and wick give out.
Therefore, O bhikkhu, a person so endowed is endowed with the absolute
wisdom, for the knowledge of the extinction of all dukkha is the absolute noble
wisdom. 'This is deliverance, founded on Truth, is unshakable. O bhikkhu, that which
is unreality (mosadhamma) is false : that which is reality (amosadhamma), Nibbana,
is Truth (Sacca). Therefore, O bhikkhu, that person so endowed is endowed with this
Absolute Truth. For, the Absolute Noble Truth (paramam aryasaccam) is Nibbana,
which is Reality.'
Elsewhere the Buddha unequivocally uses the word Truth in place of
Nibbana : "I will teach you the Truth and the Path leading to the Truth." Here Truth
definitely means Nirvana.
Now, what is Absolute Truth? According to Buddhism, the Absolute Truth is
that there is nothing absolute in the world, that everything is relative, conditioned
and impermanent, and that there is no unchanging, everlasting, absolute substance
like Self, Soul or Atman within or without. This is the Absolute Truth. Truth is never
negative, though there is a popular expression as negative truth.
The realization of this Truth, i.e., to see things as they are without illusion or
ignorance is the extinction of craving 'thirst' and the cessation (Nirodha) of dukkha,
which is Nirvana. It is interesting and useful to remember here the Mahayana view
of Nirvana as not being different from Samsara. The same thing is Samsara or
Nirvana according to the way you look at it - subjectively or objectively. This
Mahayana view was probably developed out of the ideas found in the original
Theravada Pali texts, to which we have just referred in our brief discussion.
It is incorrect to think that Nirvana is the natural result of the extinction of
craving. Nirvana is not the result of anything. If it would be a result, then it would be
an effect produced by a cause. It would be samkhata 'produced' and 'conditioned'.
Truth is not a result nor an effect. It is not produced like a mystic, spiritual, mental
state, such as dhyana or samadhi. TRUTH IS. NIRVANA IS.
The only thing you can do is to see it, to realize it. There is a path leading to
the realization of Nirvana. But the Nirvana is not the result of this path. You may get
to the mountain along a path but the mountain is not the result, not an effect of the
path. You may see a light, but the light is not the result of your eyesight.
People often ask: What is there after Nirvana? This question cannot arise,
because Nirvana is the Ultimate Truth. If it is Ultimate, there can be nothing after it.
If there is anything after Nirvana, then that will be the Ultimate Truth and not
Nirvana.
A monk named Radha put this question to the Buddha in a different form:
'For what purpose (or end) is Nirvana?' This question presupposes something after
Nirvana, when it postulates some purpose or end for it. So the Buddha answered: 'O
Radha, this question could not catch its limit (i.e., it is beside the point). One lives the
holy life with Nirvana as its final plunge (into the Absolute Truth), as its goal, as its
ultimate end.'
Some popular inaccurately phrased expressions like 'The Buddha entered
into Nirvana or Parinirvana after his death' have given rise to many imaginary
speculations about Nirvana. The moment you hear the phrase that 'the Buddha
entered into Nirvana or Parinirvana', you take Nirvana to be a state, or a realm, or a
position in which there is some sort of existence, and try to imagine it in terms of the
senses of the word 'existence' as it is known to you.
This popular expression 'entered into Nirvana' has no equivalent in the
original texts. There is no such thing as 'entering into Nirvana after death'. There is a
word parinibbuto used to denote the death of the Buddha or an Arahant who has
realized Nirvana, but it does not mean 'entering into Nirvana'. Parinibbuto simply
means 'fully passed away', 'fully blown out' or 'fully extinct', because the Buddha or
Arahant has no re-existence after his death.
Now another question arises: What happens to Buddha or an Arahant after
his death, parinirvana? This comes under the category of unanswered questions
(avyakata). Even when the Buddha spoke about this, he indicated that no words in
our vocabulary could express what happens to an Arahant after his death. In reply
to a Parivrajaka named Vaccha, the Buddha said that terms like 'born' or 'not born'
do not apply in the case of an Arahant, because those things-matter, sensation,
perception, mental activities, consciousness - with which the terms like 'born' and
'not born' are associated, are completely destroyed and uprooted, never to rise again
after his death.
An Arahant after his death is often compared to a fire gone out when the
supply of wood is over, or to the flame of a lamp gone out when the wick and oil are
finished. Here it should be clearly and distinctly understood, without any confusion,
that what is compared to a flame or a fire gone out is not Nirvana, but the 'being'
composed of the Five Aggregates who realized Nirvana. This point has to be
emphasized because many people, even some great scholars, have misunderstood
and misinterpreted this simile as referring to Nirvana. Nirvana is never compared to
a fire or a lamp gone out.
There is another popular question: If there is no Self, no Atman, who realizes
Nirvana? Before we go on to Nirvana, let us ask the question: Who thinks now, if
there is no Self? We have seen earlier that it is the thought that thinks, that there is
no thinker behind the thought. In the same way, it is wisdom (panna), realization,
that realizes. There is no other self behind the realization.
In the discussion of the origin of dukkha we saw that whatever it may be –
whether being, or thing, or system - if it is of the nature of arising, it has within itself
the nature, the germ, of its cessation, its destruction. Now dukkha, samsara, the cycle
of continuity, is of the nature of arising; it must also be of the nature of cessation.
Dukkha arises because of 'thirst' (tanha), and it ceases because of wisdom. 'Thirst' and
wisdom are both within the Five Aggregates, as we saw earlier.
Thus, the germ of their arising as well as that of their cessation are both
within the Five Aggregates. This is the real meaning of the Buddha's well-known
statement: 'Within this fathom-long sentient body itself, I postulate the world, the
arising of the world, the cessation of the world, and the path leading to the cessation
of the world.'
This means that all the Four Noble Truths are found within the Five
Aggregates, i.e., within ourselves.(Here the word 'world'(loka) is used in place of
dukkha). This also means that there is no external power that produces the arising
and the cessation of dukkha.
When wisdom is developed and cultivated according to the Fourth Noble
Truth (the next to be taken up), it sees the secret of life, the reality of things as they
are. When the secret is discovered, when the Truth is seen, all the forces which
feverishly produce the continuity of samsara in illusion become calm and incapable
of producing any more karma-formations, because there is no more illusion, no more
'thirst' for continuity. It is like a mental disease which is cured when the cause or the
secret of the malady is discovered and seen by the patient.
In almost all religions the summum bonum can be attained only after death.
But Nirvana can be realized in this very life; it is not necessary to wait till you die to
'attain' it. He who has realized the Truth, Nirvana, is the happiest being in the world.
He is free from all 'complexes' and obsessions, the worries and troubles that torment
others. His mental health is perfect. He does not repent the past, nor does he brood
over the future. He lives fully in the present. Therefore he appreciates and enjoys
things in the purest sense without self-projections.
He is joyful, exultant, enjoying the pure life, his faculties pleased, free from
anxiety, serene and peaceful. As he is free from selfish desire, hatred, ignorance,
conceit, pride, and all such 'defilements', he is pure and gentle, full of universal love,
compassion, kindness, sympathy, understanding and tolerance. His service to other
is of the purest, for he has no thought of self. He gains nothing, accumulates nothing,
not even anything spiritual, because he is free from the illusion of Self, and the
'thirst' for becoming.
Nirvana is beyond all terms of duality and relativity. It is therefore beyond
our conceptions of good and evil, right and wrong, existence and non-existence.
Even the word 'happiness' (sukha) which is used to describe Nirvana has an entirely
different sense here. Sariputa once said : ' O friend, Nirvana is happiness! Nirvana is
happiness!' Then Udayi asked : 'But, friend Sariputta, what happiness can it be if
there is no sensation?' Sariputta's reply was highly philosophical and beyond
ordinary comprehension : 'That there is no sensation itself is happiness'.
Nirvana is beyond logic and reasoning. However much we may engage, often
as a vain intellectual pastime, in highly speculative discussions regarding Nirvana
or Ultimate Truth or Reality, we shall never understand it that way. A child in the
kindergarten should not quarrel about the theory of relativity. Instead, if he follows
his studies patiently and diligently, one day he may understand it.
Nirvana is 'to be realized by the wise within themselves'. If we follow the Path
patiently and with diligence, train and purify ourselves earnestly, and attain the
necessary spiritual development, we may one day realize it within ourselves –
without taxing ourselves with puzzling and high-sounding words. Let us therefore
now turn to the Path which leads to the realization of Nirvana.


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