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 게시글 제목: Instruction for life
전체글올린 게시글: 2015-12-28, (월) 8:21 am 

가입일: 2015-01-30, (금) 10:13 pm
전체글: 103
Instruction for life

1. Take into account that great love and great achievements involve great risk.
2. When you lose, don't lose the lesson.
3. Follow the three R's: Respect for self; Respect for others; and Responsibility for all your actions.
4. Remember that not getting what you want is sometimes a wonderful stroke of luck.
5. Learn the rules so you know how to break them properly.
6. Don't let a little dispute injure a great friendship.
7. When you realize you've made a mistake, take immediate steps to correct it.
8. Spend some time alone every day.
9. Open your arms to change, but don't let go of your values.
10. Remember that silence is sometimes the best answer.
11. Live a good, honorable life. Then when you get older and think back, you'll be able to enjoy it a second time.
12. A loving atmosphere in your home is the foundation for your life.
13. In disagreements with loved ones, deal only with the current situation. Don't bring up the past.
14. Share your knowledge. It's a way to achieve immortality.
15. Be gentle with the earth.
16. Once a year, go someplace you've never been before.
17. Remember that the best relationship is one in which your love for each other exceeds your need for each other.
18. Judge your success by what you had to give up in order to get it.
19. Approach love and cooking with reckless abandon.
There are some who believe that Buddhism is so lofty and sublime a system
that it cannot be practised by ordinary men and women in this workaday world of
ours, and that one has to retire from it to a monastery, or to some quiet place, if one
desires to be a true Buddhist.
This is a sad misconception, due evidently to a lack of understanding of the
teaching of the Buddha. People run to such hasty and wrong conclusions as a result
of their hearing, or reading casually, something about Buddhism written by
someone, who, as he has not understood the subject in all its aspects, gives only a
partial and lopsided view of it. The Buddha's teaching is meant not only for monks in
monasteries, but also for ordinary men and women living at home with their
families. The Noble Eightfold Path, which is the Buddhist way of life, is meant for all,
without distinction of any kind.
The vast majority of people in the world cannot turn monk, or retire into
caves or forests. However noble and pure Buddhism may be, it would be useless to
the masses of mankind if they could not follow it in their daily life in the world of
today. But if you understand the spirit of Buddhism correctly (and not only its
letter), you can surely follow and practise it while living the life of an ordinary man.
There may be some who find it easier and more convenient to accept
Buddhism, if they do live in a remote place, cut off from the society of others. Others
may find that that kind of retirement dulls and depresses their whole being both
physically and mentally, and that it may not therefore be conduicive to the
development of their spiritual and intellectual life.
True renunciation does not mean running away physically from the world.
Sariputta, the chief disciple of the Buddha, said that one man might live in a forest
devoting himself to ascetic practices but might be full of impure thoughts and
'defilements' ; another might live in a village or a town, practising no ascetic
discipline, but his mind might be pure, and free from 'defilements'. Of these two, said
Sariputta, the one who lives a pure life in the village or town is definitely far
superior to, and greater than, the one who lives in the forest.
The common belief that to follow the Buddha's teaching one has to retire
from life is a misconception. It is really an unconscious defence against practising it.
There are numerous references in Buddhist literature to men and women living
ordinary, normal family lives who successfully practised what the Buddha taught,
and realized Nirvana. Vacchagotta the Wanderer, (whom we met earlier in the
chapter on Anatta), once asked the Buddha straightforwardly whether there were
laymen and women leading the family life, who followed his teaching successfully
and attained to high spiritual states. The Buddha categorically stated that there
were not one or two, not a hundred or two hundred or five hundred, but many more
laymen and women leading the family life who followed his teaching successfully
and attained to high spiritual states.
It may be agreeable for certain people to live a retired life in a quiet place
away from noise and disturbance. But it is certainly more praiseworthy and
courageous to practise Buddhism living among your fellow beings, helping them
and being of service to them. It may perhaps be useful in some cases for a man to live
in retirement for a time in order to improve his mind and character, as preliminary
moral, spiritual and intellectual training, to be strong enough to come out later and
help others. But if a man lives all his life in solitude, thinking only of his own
happiness and 'salvation', without caring for his fellows, this surely is not in keeping
with the Buddha's teaching which is based on love, compassion, and service to
others.
One might now ask: If a man can follow Buddhism while living the life of an
ordinary layman, why was the Sangha, the Order of monks, established by the
Buddha? The Order provides opportunity for those who are willing to devote their
lives not only to their own spiritual and intellectual development, but also to the
service of others. An ordinary layman with a family cannot be expected to devote
his whole life to the service of others, whereas a monk, who has no family
responsibilities or any other worldly ties, is in a position to devote his whole life 'for
the good of the many, for the happiness of the many' according to the Buddha's
advice. That is how in the course of history, the Buddhist monastery became not only
a spiritual centre, but also a centre of learning and culture.
The Sigala-sutta (No.31 of the Digha-nikaya) shows with what great respect
the layman's life, his family and social relations are regarded by the Buddha. A
young man named Sigala used to worship the six cardinal points of the heavens -
east, south, west, north, nadir and zenith - in obeying and observing the last advice
given him by his dying father. The Buddha told the young man that in the 'noble
discipline' (ariyassa vinaye) of his teaching the six directions were different.
According to his 'noble discipline' the six directions were: east: parents; south;
teachers; west: wife and children; north: friends, relatives and neighbours; nadir:
servants, workers and employees; zenith: religious men.
'One should worship these six directions' said the Buddha. Here the word
'worship' (namasseyya) is very significant, for one worships something sacred,
something worthy of honour and respect. These six family and social groups
mentioned above are treated in Buddhism as sacred, worthy of respect and worship.
But how is one to 'worship' them? The Buddha says that one could 'worship' them
only by performing one's duties towards them. These duties are explained in his
discourse to Sigala.
First : Parents are sacred to their children. The Buddha says: 'Parents are
called Brahma'(Brahmati matapitaro). The term Brahma denotes the highest and
most sacred conception in Indian thought, and in it the Buddha includes parents. So
in good Buddhist families at the present time children literally 'worship' their
parents every day, morning and evening. They have to perform certain duties
towards their parents according to the 'noble discipline': they should look after their
parents in their old age; should do whatever they have to do on their behalf; should
maintain the honour of the family and continue the family tradition; should protect
the wealth earned by their parents; and perform their funeral rites after their death.
Parents, in their turn, have certain responsibilities towards their children: they
should keep their children away from evil courses : should engage them in good and
profitable activities; should give them a good education ; should marry them into
good families ; and should hand over the property to them in due course.
Second: The relation between teacher and pupil : a pupil should respect and
be obedient to his teacher : should attend to his needs if any ; should study earnestly.
And the teacher, in his turn, should train and shape his pupil properly ; should teach
him well ; should introduce him to his friends ; and should try to procure him security
or employment when his education is over.
Third : The relation between husband and wife : love between husband and
wife is considered almost religious or sacred. It is called sadara-Brahmacariya
'sacred family life'. Here, too, the significance of the term Brahma should be noted :
the highest respect is given to this relationship. Wives and husbands should be
faithful, respectful and devoted to each other, and they have certain duties towards
each other : the husband should always honour his wife and never be wanting in
respect to her ; he should love her and be faithful to her ; should secure her position
and comfort ; and should please her by presenting her with clothing and jewellery.
(The fact that the Buddha did not forget to mention even such a thing as the gifts a
husband should make to his wife shows how understanding and sympathetic were
his humane feelings towards ordinary human emotions.) The wife, in her turn, should
supervise and look after household affairs ; should entertain guests, visitors, friends,
relatives and employees ; should love and be faithful to her husband ; should protect
his earnings ; should be clever and energetic in all activities.
Fourth : The relation between friends, relatives and neighbours : they should
be hospitable and charitable to one another ; should speak pleasantly and
agreeably ; should work for each other's welfare ; should be on equal terms with one
another ; should not quarrel mong
themselves ; should help each other in need ; and should not forsake each other in
need ; and should not forsake each other in difficulty.
Firth : The relation between master and servant : the master or the employer
has several obligations towards his servant or his employee : work should be
assigned according to ability and capacity ; adequate wages should be paid ;
medical needs should be provided ; occasional donations or bonuses should be
granted. The servant or employee, in his turn, should be diligent and not lazy ; honest
and obedient and not cheat his master ; he should be earnest in his work.
Sixth : The relation between the religious (lit. recluses and brahmanas) and
the laity : lay people should look after the material needs of the religious with love
and respect ; the religious with a loving heart should impart knowledge and
learning to the laity, and lead them along the good path away from evil.
We see then that the lay life, with its family and social relations, is included
in the 'noble discipline', and is within the framework of the Buddhist way of life, as
the Buddha envisaged it. So in the Samyutta-nikaya, one of the oldest Pali texts,
Sakka, the king of the gods (devas), declares that he worships not only the monks
who live a virtuous holy life, but also 'lay disciples (upasaka) who perform
meritorious deeds, who are virtuous, and maintain their families righteously'.
If one desires to become a Buddhist, there is no initiation ceremony (or
baptism) which one has to undergo. (But to become a bhikkhu, a member of the
Order of the Sangha, one has to undergo a long process of disciplinary training and
education.) If one understands the Buddha's teaching, and if one is convinced that
his teaching is the right Path and of one tries to follow it, then one is a Buddhist. But
according to the unbroken age-old tradition in Buddhist countries, one is
considered a Buddhist if one takes the Buddha, the Dhamma(the Teaching), and the
Sanga(The Order of Monks)-generally called 'the Triple-Gem'- as one's refuges, and
undertakes to observe the Five Precepts(Panca-sila)-the minimum moral
obligations of a lay Buddhist - (1) not to destroy life, (2) not to steal, (3) not to commit
adultery, (4) not to tell lies, (5) not to take intoxicating drinks - reciting the formulas
given in the ancient texts. On religious occasions Buddhists incongregation usually
recite these formulas, following the lead of a Buddhist monk.
There are no external rites or ceremonies which a Buddhist has to perform.
Buddhism is a way of life, and what is essential is following the Noble Eightfold
Path. Of course there are in all Buddhist countries simple and beautiful ceremonies
on religious occasions. There are shrines with statues of the Buddha, stupas or
dagabas and Bo-trees in monasteries where Buddhists worship, offer flowers, light
lamps and burn incense. This should not be likened to prayer in theistic religions; it
is only a way of paying homage to the memory of the Master who showed the way.
These traditional observances, though inessential, have their value in satisfying the
religious emotions and needs of those who are less advanced intellectually and
spiritually, and helping them gradually along the Path.
Those who think that Buddhism is interested only on lofty ideals, high moral
and philosophical thought, and that it ignores the social and economic welfare of
people, are wrong. The Buddha was interested in the happiness of men. To him
happiness was not possible without leading a pure life based on moral and spiritual
principles. But he knew that leading such a life was hard in unfavorable material
and social conditions.
Buddhism does not consider material welfare as an end in itself ; it is only a
means to an end - a higher and nobler end. But it is a means which is indispensable,
indispensable in achieving a higher purpose for man's happiness. So Buddhism
recognizes the need of certain minimum material condition favorable to spiritual
success - even that of a monk engaged in meditation in some solitary place.
The Buddha did not take life out of the context of its social and economic
background ; he looked at it as a whole, in all its social, economic and political
aspects. His teachings on ethical, spiritual and philosophical problems are fairly
well known. But little is known, particularly in the West, about his teaching on
social, economic and political matters. Yet there are numerous discourses dealing
with these scattered throughout the ancient Buddhist texts. Let us take only a few
examples.
The Cakkavattisihanada-sutts of the Digha-nikaya (No.26) clearly states
that poverty (daliddiya) is the cause of immorality and crimes such as theft,
falsehood, violence, hatred, cruelty, etc. Kings in ancient times, like government
today, tried to suppress the cause of immorality and crimes crime through
punishment. The Kutadanta-sutta of the same Nikaya explains how futile this is. It
says that this method can never be successful. Instead the Buddha suggests that, in
order to eradicate crime, the economic condition of the people should be improved :
grain and other facilities for agriculture should be provided for farmers and
cultivators ; capital should be provided for traders and those engaged in business ;
adequate wages should be paid to those who are employed. When people are thus
provided for with opportunities for earning a sufficient income, they will be
contented, will have no fear or anxiety, and consequently the country will be
peaceful and free from crime.
Because of this, the Buddha told lay people how important it is to improve
their economic condition. This does not mean that he approved of hoarding wealth
with desire and attachment, which is against his fundamental teaching, nor did he
approve of each and every way of earning one's livelihood. There are certain trades
like the production and sale of armaments, which he condemns as evil means of
livelihood, as we saw earlier.
A man named Dighajanu once visited the Buddha and said : 'Venerable Sir,
we are ordinary lay men, leading the family life with wife and children. Would the
Blessed One teach us some doctrines which will be conducive to our happiness in
this world and hereafter.' The Buddha tells him that there are four things which are
conducive to a man's happiness in this world : First : he should be skilled, efficient,
earnest, and energetic in whatever profession he is engaged, and he should know it
well (utthanasampada) ; second : he should protect his income, which he has thus
earned righteously, with the sweat of his brow (arakkha-sampada); (This refers to
protecting wealth from thieves, etc. All these ideas should be considered against the
background of the period.) third : he should have good friends (kalyana-mitta) who
are faithful, learned, virtuous, liberal and intelligent, who will help him along the
right path away from evil ; fourth : he should spend reasonably, in proportion to his
income, neither too much nor too little, i.e., should not hoard wealth avariciously, nor
should he be extravagant - in other words he should live within his means
(samajivikata).
Then the Buddha expounds the four virtues conducive to a layman's
happiness hereafter : (1) Saddha : he should have faith and confidence in moral,
spiritual and intellectual values ; (2) Sila : he should abstain from destroying and
harming life, from stealing and cheating, from adultery, from falsehood, and from
intoxicating drinks ; (3) Caga : he should practise charity, generosity, without
attachment and craving for his wealth ; (4) Panna ; he should develop wisdom which
leads to the complete destruction of suffering, to the realization of Nirvana.
Sometimes the Buddha even went into details about saving money and
spending it, as, for instance, when he told the young man Sigala that he should
spend one fourth of his income on his daily expenses, invest half in his business and
put aside one of fourth for any emergency.
Once the Buddha told Anathapindika, the great banker, one of his most
devoted lay disciples who founded for him the celebrated Jetavana monastery at
Savatthi, that a layman, who leads an ordinary family life, has four kinds of
happiness. The first happiness is to enjoy economic security or sufficient wealth
acquired by just and righteous means (atthi-sukha) ; the second is spending that
wealth liberally on himself, his family, his friends and relatives, and on meritorious
deeds (bhogasukha); the third to be free from debts (anana-sukha) ; the fourth
happiness is to live a faultless, and a pure life without committing evil in thought,
word or deed (anavajja-sukha). It must be noted here that three of these kinds are
economic, and that the Buddha finally reminded the banker that economic and
material happiness is 'not worth one sixteenth part' of the spiritual happiness arising
out of a faultless and good life.
From the few examples given above, one could see that the Buddha
considered economic welfare as requisite for human happiness, but that he did not
recognize progress as real and true if it was only material, devoid of a spiritual and
moral foundation. While encouraging material progress, Buddhism always lays
great stress on the development of the moral and spiritual character for a happy,
peaceful and contented society.
The Buddha was just as clear on politics, on war and peace. It is too well
known to be repeated here that Buddhism advocates and preaches nonviolence
and peace as its universal message, and does not approve of any kind of violence or
destruction of life. According to Buddhism there is nothing that can be called a 'just
war' - which is only a false term coined and put into circulation to justify and excuse
hatred, cruelty, violence and massacre. Who decides what is just or unjust? The
mighty and the victorious are 'just', and the weak and the defeated are 'unjust'. Our
war is always 'just', and your war is always 'unjust'. Buddhism does not accept this
position.
The Buddha not only taught non-violence and peace, but he even went to
the field of battle itself and intervened personally, and prevented war, as in the case
of the dispute between the Sakyas and the Koliyas, who were prepared to fight over
the question of the waters of the Rohini. And his words once prevented King
Ajatasattu from attacking the kingdom of the Vajjis.
In the days of the Buddha, as today, there were rulers who governed their
countries unjustly. People were oppressed and exploited, tortured and persecuted,
excessive taxes were imposed and cruel punishments were inflicted. The Buddha
was deeply moved by these inhumanities. The Dhammapadatthakatha records that
he, therefore, directed his attention to the problem of good government. His views
should be appreciated against the social, economic and political background of his
time. He had shown how a whole country could become corrupt, degenerate and
unhappy when the heads of its government, that is the king, the ministers and
administerative officers become corrupt and unjust. For a country to be happy it
must have a just government. How this form of just government could be realized is
explained by the Buddha in his teaching of the 'Ten Duties of the King'(dasa-rajakhamma),
as given in the Jataka text.
Of course the term 'king'(Raja) of old should be replaced today by the term'
Government'. 'The Ten Duties of the King', therefore, apply today to all those who
constitute the government, such as the head of the state, ministers, political leaders,
legislative and administrative officers, etc.
The first of the 'Ten Duties of the King' is liberality, generosity, charity (dana). The
ruler should not have craving and attachment to wealth and property, but should
give it away for the welfare of the people.
Second : A high moral character (sila).
He should never destroy life, cheat, steal and exploit others, commit adultery, utter
falsehood, and take intoxicating drinks. That is, he must at least observe the Five
Precepts of the layman.
Third : Sacrificing everything for the good of the people (pariccaga), he must
be prepared to give up all personal comfort, mane and fame, and even his life, in the
interest of the people.
Fourth : Honesty and integrity (ajjava).
He must be free from fear or favour in the discharge of his duties, must be sincere in
his intentions, and must not deceive the public.
Fifth : Kindness and gentleness (maddava).
He must possess a genial temperament.
Sixth : Austerity in habits (tapa).
He must lead a simple life, and should not indulge in a life of luxury. He must have
self-control.
Seventh : Freedom from hatred, ill-will, enmity (akkodha).
He should bear no grudge against anybody.
Eighth : Non-violence (avihimsa), which means not only that he should harm
nobody, but also that he should try to promote peace by avoiding and preventing
war, and everything which involves violence and destruction of life.
Ninth : Patience, forbearance, tolerance, understanding (khanti).
He must be able to bear hardships, difficulties and insults without losing his temper.
Tenth : Non-opposition, non-obstruction (avirodha), that is to say that he
should not oppose the will of the people, should not obstruct any measures that are
conducive to the welfare of the people. In other words he should rule in harmony
with his people.
If a country is ruled by men endowed with such qualities, it is needless to say
that that country must be happy. But this was not a Utopia, for there were kings in
the past like Asoka of India who had established kingdoms based on these ideas.
The world today lives in constant fear, suspicion, and tension. Science has
produced weapons which are capable of unimaginable destruction. Brandishing
these new instruments of death, great powers threaten and challenge one another,
boasting shamelessly that one could cause more destruction and misery in the world
than the other. They have gone along this path of madness to such a point that, now,
if they take one more step forward in that direction, the result will be nothing but
mutual annihilation along with the total destruction of humanity. Human beings in
fear of the situation they have themselves created, want to find a way out, and seek
some kind of solution. But there is none except that held out by the Buddha - his
message of non-violence and peace, of love and compassion, of tolerance and
understanding, of truth and wisdom, of respect and regard for all life, of freedom
from selfishness, hatred and violence.
he Buddha says : 'Never by hatred is hatred appeased, but it is appeased by
kindness. This is an eternal truth.' 'One should win anger through kindness,
wickedness through goodness, selfishness through charity, and falsehood through
truthfulness.' There can be no peace or happiness for man as long as he desires and
thirsts after conquering and subjugating his neighbour. As the Buddha says : 'The
victor breeds hatred, and the defeated lies down in misery. He who renounces both
victory and defeat is happy and peaceful.' The only conquest that brings peace and
happiness is self-conquest. 'One may conquer millions in battle, but he who
conquers himself, only one, is the greatest of conquerors.'
You will say this is all very beautiful, noble and sublime, but impractical. Is it
practical to hate one another? To kill one another? To live in eternal fear and
suspicion like wild animals in a jungle? Is this more practical and comfortable? Was
hatred ever appeased by hatred? Was evil ever won over by evil? But there are
examples, at least in individual cases, where hatred is appeased by love and
kindness, and evil won over by goodness. You will say that this may be true,
practicable in individual cases, but that it never works in national and international
affairs. People are hypnotized, psychologically puzzled, blinded and deceived by
the political and propaganda usage of such terms as ' national', ' international', or
'state'. What is a nation but a vast conglomeration of individuals? A nation or a state
does not act, it is the individual who acts. What the individual thinks and does is
what the nation of the state thinks and does. What is applicable to the individual in
applicable to the nation or the state. If hatred can be appeased by love and kindness
on the individual scale, surely it can be realized on the national and international
scale too. Even in the case of a single person, to meet hatred with kindness one must
have tremendous courage, boldness, faith and confidence in moral force. May it not
be even more so with regard to international affairs? If by the expression 'not
practical' you mean 'not easy', you are right. Definitely it is not easy. Yet it should be
tried. You may say it is risky trying it. Surely it cannot be more risky than trying a
nuclear war.
It is consolation and inspiration to think today that at least there was one
great ruler, well known in history, who had the courage, the confidence and the
vision to apply this teaching of non-violence, peace and love to the administration
of a vast empire, in both internal and external affairs - Asoka, the great Buddhist
emperor of India (3rd century B.C.)- 'the Beloved of the gods' as he was called. At
first he followed the example of his father (Bindusara) and grandfather
(Chandragupta), and wished to complete the conquest of the Indian peninsula. He
invaded and conquered Kalinga, and annexed it. Many hundreds of thousands were
killed, wounded, tortured and taken prisoner in this war. But later, when he became
a Buddhist, he was completely changed and transformed by the Buddha's teaching.
In one of his famous Edicts, inscribed on rock, (Rock Edict _,as it is now called), the
original of which one may read even today, referring to the conquest of Kalinga, the
Emperor publicly expressed his 'repentance', and said how 'extremely painful' it was
for him to think of that carnage.
He publicly declared that he would never draw his sword again for any
conquest, but that he 'wishes all living beings non-violence, self considered the chief
conquest by the Beloved of the gods(i.e., Asoka), namely the conquest by piety
(dhammavijaya).' Not only did he renounce war himself, he expressed his desire that
'my sons and grandsons will not think of a new conquest as worth achieving… let
them think of that conquest only which is the conquest by piety. That is good for this
world and the world beyond. This is the only example in the history of mankind of a
victorious conquerer at the zenith of his power, still possessing the strength to
continue his territorial conquests, yet renouncing war and violence and turning to
peace and non-violence.
Here is a lesson for the world today. The ruler of an empire publicly turned
his back on war and violence and embraced the message of peace and non-violence.
There is no historical evidence to show that any neighbouring king took advantage
of Asoka's piety to attack him militarily, or that there was any revolt or rebellion
within his empire during his lifetime. On the contrary there was peace throughout
the land, and even countries outside his empire seem to have accepted his benign
leadership.
To talk of maintaining peace through the balance of power, or through the
threat of nuclear deterrents, is foolish. The might of armaments can only produce
fear, and not peace. It is impossible that there can be genuine and lasting peace
through fear. Through fear can come only hatred, ill-will and hostility, suppressed
perhaps for the time being only, but ready to erupt and become violent at any
moment. True and genuine peace can prevail only in an atmosphere of metta, amity,
free from fear, suspicion and danger.
Buddhism aims at creating a society where the ruinous struggle for power is
renounced ; where calm and peace prevail away from conquest and defeat ; where
the persecution of the innocent is vehemently denounced ; where one who conquers
oneself is more respected than those who conquer millions by military and economic
warfare ; where hatred is conquered by kindness, and evil by goodness ; where
enmity, jealousy, ill-will and greed to not infect men's minds ; where compassion is
the driving force of action ; where all, including the least of living things, are treated
with fairness, consideration and love ; where life in peace and harmony, in a world of
material contentment, is directed towards the highest and noblest aim, the
realization of the Ultimate Truth, Nirvana.


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